Tunnel construction is probably the field of engineering which has advanced more rapidly in recent years. In traditional methods of excavacion and coating the tunnel goes construyendo by phases. On the other hand, the tunneling or integral tunnelling machines dig and may at the same time take the entire section of the planned tunnel. In traditional methods of tunnels construction advances relate to the increase in yields, the quality of the trabajos and the conditions of health and safety. As for the excavation of tunnels with explosives, current models offer the automation of its positioning and the geometry of the drilling plan. Many models added programming optima sequence or minimum time of drilling.
The jumbos are widely used perforacion automotive equipment. The hydraulic drive of perforating machines, with levels of noise minima, and isolation and acondicionamiento of the cabins, excellent conditions of health in this work has been. Following drilling machinery, it emphasizes the appearance of the bulonadoras, automotive equipment specially designed for the placement of bolts of sustaining. The rendimientos of the bulonadoras are very superior to the jumbos of medium small size. The mechanical excavation, which was limited to the soft rocks and soils, has increased the hardness of excavables rocks and increase yields, both with maquinas Shearer backhoes with heavy hammer in a similar proportion.
The backhoes equipped to load part of the basic machinery of traditional methods, which have seen their yields triplicates. Addition to these machines, are the dumpers, large trucks used for the transportation of the resulting debris of the excavation. Stresses, for your interest in cases of construction of long tunnels by tape debris extraction and the tecnicas enhancements to blades of rapido transport, whose transition from mining to civil construction has been completed in recent years, by the advantages that present short transport distances. Finally, within the traditional methods, increasing the capacity of the gunitadoras, in which the wet for the projection of mortars and concretes has been imposed on sustaining jobs is relevant.